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Hyperemesis gravidarum is a medical term for excessive vomiting during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester. It is an exaggerated form of morning sickness, to the extent that, you as a mother-to-be may experience significant weight loss and vomiting.
You may be unable to eat, or even tolerate the smell or sight of food. You may throw up every time you eat anything at all. Prolonged periods of going without food or water cause acidity which worsens nausea and vomiting. This
causes a vicious cycle and you may go for days without much food.
The condition is particularly distressing because of the severe retching and inability to eat, even though you may be very hungry!
Most women (70-80%) experience varying degrees of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum affects about 1% pregnant women.
It is commoner if you have a multiple pregnancy (twins or triplets) and in a condition called vesicular mole (a type of abnormal pregnancy).
The condition usually begins in the second month of pregnancy (5th to 6th week) and usually subsides by the end of the third month although it may continue till even the fifth month in some cases.
The condition also tends to recur in future pregnancies, although it is impossible to predict for whom it will.
Unfortunately, there is no known way to prevent the condition. However, one can definitely manage it well.
If you are dehydrated, you may need to be hospitalised and given IV fluids, anti-vomiting medication and antacids. Your obstetrician may also perform tests for liver or gastrointestinal condition.
In rare cases, if things do not get better, you may need to be fed through a tube passed into your stomach.